Chronic Kidney Disease has a major impact on the health of populations across the globe. The progression of CKD independently exerts synergistic deleterious effects on the other parts of human body. For instance, patients with CKD are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than to develop renal failure. The herbal remedies for kidney failure is the most preferred medical treatment that provides long lasting results without any side effects.
It is, in fact, very difficult to separate these chronic diseases, because one is a complication of the other in many situations. The development and progression of CKD are closely linked with hypertension and dyslipidemia, both causes of renal failure. Diabetic nephropathy is arguably the leading cause of renal failure. CKD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus altogether are responsible for causing CVD that includes coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke and peripheral arterial disease.
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease
Oxidative stress is a state of imbalance between free radical production and its degradation by antioxidant systems with increased accumulation of radicals. During the metabolism of oxygen, 90% of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation occurs in mitochondria. In this process, some electrons passing the electron transport chain may leak from the main path and can directly reduce oxygen molecules to the superoxide anion.
Mechanisms That Lead to Increased Oxidative Stress in CKD
Different mechanisms could explain the increased oxidative stress in CKD. They are:
Uremia-Related Factors – The resting serum levels of superoxide anion is higher in HD Patients than in healthy ones. From the studies, it has been concluded that antioxidant enzymes are altered as renal function declines and are profoundly impaired in patients with uremia.
Role of Inflammation in CKD – CKD is considered to be a low grade inflammatory process in itself. Chronic inflammation can lead to increased oxidative stress in advanced renal disease with malnutrition and autonomic dysfunction being the factors related to the increased inflammatory rate.
Clinical Effect of Oxidative Stress in CKD
The important consequence of oxidative stress in CKD is endothelial dysfunction and the progression of other complications like atherosclerosis, anaemia, and amyloidosis.
Amyloidosis – The presence of oxidative stress directly modifies the function of proteins through the formation of oxidized amino acids. In the patients suffering from long term kidney problems, oxidative stress promotes amyloidosis due to protein denaturation.
Anemia – Serum of patients suffering from kidney disease have higher levels of MDA in erythrocytes and a severe deficiency in vitamin content, which may shorten the lifespan of erythrocytes in CKD. Thus making the person anemic.
CKD patients are affected by multiple diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. They all are associated with oxidative stress. The presence of CKD further enhances the oxidative stress independently from the underlying conditions. Hemodialysis is also the leading factor for the oxidative stress.
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