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Author Archives: Kundan Kidney Care

Categories Advice, Kidney Disease, Kundan Kidney Care Centre, Risk Factors

Kidney Diseases, Sexuality and Pregnancy

Individuals with chronic kidney diseases are often concerned with sexuality and having a child. It is not uncommon for a woman with CKD to wonder if she can get pregnant or for a man undergoing dialysis if he can become a father despite his treatment. Additionally, there are birth control questions that need to be discussed, among others.

Let us start with the query if a woman on dialysis can have a child. It is rare for a woman on dialysis to get pregnant. If indeed she gets pregnant she usually has a miscarriage. Most women dialysis patients do not have regular menstrual cycles. However, using erythropoietin (EPO) leads to improvement in some women’s overall health which also increases the chance of pregnancy. A baby is usually conceived after treatments are increased, changes are made in the diet and medications and more frequent visits to the doctor.

A woman’s body changes during pregnancy and adds stress to it. This is true even for healthy women who risk their lives because of pregnancy. A baby’s life is always at risk too at any stage in the pregnancy. However, there is greater risk for women dialysis patients and the unborn child.

Women, especially those who are married, may feel incomplete or sexually incapable, if they are unable to conceive a child. It may even give them a feeling of loss, especially since society expects married couples to have children. In order to cope, women who feel incomplete or depressed should openly communicate her feelings and needs with her partner and / or health care professionals. Perhaps she can also consider other options such as becoming a foster parent.

But it is not only women who get anxious about this issue. Men on dialysis also have the same concern. Can he father a child? The answer is yes, it is possible for a man on dialysis to become a father. Even those who received kidney transplants can become fathers. However, couples who have tried in the last year to conceive a child without success should consult their family doctors. The man may need to have a routine fertility check up.

If a man who has undergone a kidney transplant father a child, then can a woman who underwent the same procedure become pregnant? Fortunately, the answer is a big YES. A woman who went through a kidney transplant has a more regular menstrual cycle and is generally in better health. This makes it easier for her to conceive a baby. However, patients should take note that pregnancy is not recommended until a year after the kidney transplant.

Another concern for women with CKD is birth control. Recommended birth control methods are diaphragm, sponge and condom, especially if they are used with spermicidal creams, foams or jellies. Dialysis patients are recommended to use birth control. The doctor can recommend which birth control type to use to guard against pregnancy. Those with high blood pressure are recommended not to use the pill since it can increase blood pressure. Meanwhile transplant patients are not recommended to use Intrauterine Devices (IUD) since they are more likely to get an infection from IUD use. Anti-rejection drugs taken during dialysis lower the body’s ability to fight infection.

Categories Health, Kidney Disease, Kundan Kidney Care Centre, Protein, Risk Factors

What is GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate)?

Once your doctor observe any markers for kidney disease, he/she will recommend a few tests. One of them will be to determine the GFR. This refers to the amount of fluid filtered per minute by the glomeruli (capillaries or tiny blood vessels in the kidneys).

GFR is an accurate index to measure the kidney function. This can also determine the stage of kidney disease. The normal range varies between 100 – 120 ml/min.

It is also a good practice to use appropriate terms to understand why these tests are performed. It is also important to understand the four main functions of kidneys:

  1. Excretory function – this helps in excretion of waste products and drugs
  2. Regulatory function – this controls body fluid volume and composition
  3. Endocrine function – this produces erythropoietin, renin and prostaglandis
  4. Metabolic function – this metabolizes Vitamin D and small molecular weight proteins

A low GFR is an evidence of serious progressive renal disease. GFR reduces in both acute and chronic renal failure. A reduction of more than 50% in GFR manifests as raised serum urea and creatinine.

To determine GFR, other factors like age, race and gender are taken into consideration. Doctor may ask to measure GFR more than once before an assessment of kidney function is determined.

Even though the GFR test is very useful to determine kidney function, the results may vary in some situations. E.g. age 70 or older and under 18, pregnant, obese, muscular, vegetarian, African descent. These factors affect creatinine generation. In these cases, an additional test with 24 hours urine collection may be more accurate.

Your doctor may suggest some additional tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan to spot any abnormalities in the kidneys such as kidney stones. A kidney biopsy may be suggested to have to examine any abnormalities and disease.

If you are diagnosed with any stage of kidney disease or you are at risk. Please contact us for a safe and natural treatment.

Categories Health, Kidney Disease, Kundan Kidney Care Centre

Kidney Disease – How to Cope with Stress

Dealing with kidney disease can create a fair amount of tension, but you don’t have to let stress be the ruling power within your life. It’s a known fact that when stress is left undealt with over a period of time, it can potentially evolve to become a more serious mental health issue. Therefore when encountering the first signs of stress it’s important that you take any necessary steps to effectively combat it.

Here are some things that you can do to manage the stress of living with kidney disease:

Educate Yourself

If you have questions or concerns, write down anything that you could ask your healthcare provider to shed light on your circumstance. You may have questions about either kidney disease or the treatment you are receiving. Or you may wonder how to find information which would allow you to locate and obtain certain resources. Your doctor can both answer your queries and point you towards the resources you seek.

You may consider consulting a social worker for information on topics such as what to do if you can no longer perform the same career work that you did before.

Counseling, Friends or Social Worker

If you have access to counselling it’s a good idea to utilize the services available to you. When you have a health condition such as kidney disease you may at times feel overwhelmed. Word exchanges with a professional mental health care worker can be exactly what you need to keep stress at a manageable level.

If you don’t need the help of a professional and you have an understanding friend or family member, talk to them. The release may prove cathartic.

Keep Physically Active

With kidney disease, there may be limitations on what you can do, but that’s no reason to let your health deteriorate. Exercising regularly is a way to cut through stress.

Stay Happy by Creating

Apply some of your talents to creating works of art in whichever form is most suitable to you. You may be an artist and love to paint; you may be a poet, or perhaps a writer. When you are occupied with such things you are focusing on creating and positivity; of course this keeps you too busy to focus on things which cause you stress.

Eat Healthy Foods

Pay attention to which foods you consume. When exposed to stress many feel a compulsion to overeat, or else have trouble controlling which types of food they eat. Succumbing to such compulsions when facing kidney disease, you may aggravate your condition to become more serious. This is another reason why it is of utmost importance to manage stress effectively.

Meditate

Meditation brings peace. It can help you to alleviate stress and create an appropriate degree of inner stillness during trying times. Meditation is also known to bring you insight into matters of concern.

Expose Yourself to Nature

When spending time outdoors in nature you are taking the time to appreciate the beauty of the world, and to filter it all in. There is healing within this. Taking time to literally ‘stop and smell the roses’ is an effective way to counter stress.

The above is a practical synopsis of how to deal with tolerable amounts of stress. But if at any time you are feeling overwhelmed you should seek the help of a competent mental health care practitioner.

Categories Advice, Health, Kidney Disease, Kundan Kidney Care Centre, Protein, Risk Factors

Kidney Disease – A Global Issue

Kidney disease is a chronic disease spreading at an alarming rate. Statistics show that it is increasing every year at a rate of six to eight percent. Chronic kidney disease is a chronic and progressive disease. The most challenging part of this disease is to have it diagnosed in time to seek a professional advice.

It may take years for the damage to become noticeable. It also known as a silent killer. Chronic kidney disease goes through several stages, with the final stage being end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), also referred as end-stage renal failure (ESRD).

The main cause of this disease is type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Having both can cause a serious damage to the kidneys. The damage to the nephrons is slow and in the early stages does not cause any symptoms.

In some cases, it could be sudden, occurring due to an infection, injury or toxin ingestion.

When the nephrons are damaged, they lose their effectiveness as blood filters and the body is no longer able to get rid of waste products, toxins and water on its own. This starts to build up in the blood.

The buildup of water and waste products called uremia and it causes swelling in hands and feet and fatigue. Untreated uremia could cause loss of mental function, seizure or even coma or death.

Improper kidney function can also cause several other problems. For instance, not regulate blood pressure or essential metabolites and nutrients in the body.

One of the most common consequences of kidney damage is cardiovascular disease. In fact, eventually, most people with kidney damage die because of heart disease. Kidney damage causes fluid to build up in the lining around the heart causing pericardial disease, which is also a common consequence of diabetes.

Because kidney disease does not have symptoms in the early stages, it is important to get annual checkups. A urine test is often the first method that spots the signs of kidney damage, by detecting excess protein in the urine.

If caught early, kidney disease is very treatable. Treatment can help to stop the disease from progressing and causing further damage to your kidneys.

The use of natural remedies in cases of kidney damage can be very effective. Herbs and nutrients have shown to both treat the cause of kidney damage and even reverse kidney damage. When combined with the correct diet and lifestyle changes, the use of natural remedies means that kidney damage does not have to be progressive.

Categories Health, Kidney Disease, Risk Factors

Gout: Symptoms, Causes, Diet and Medication

Gout can have many different factors and here are a few different reasons:

  • An elevated serum urate concentration
  • Recurrent attacks of acute arthritis in which Monosodium Urate (MSU) crystals are in synovial fluid
  • Aggregates of MSU crystals (tophi) deposited in & around joints leading to deformity & crippling
  • Renal disease involving glomerular, tubular, interstitial tissue & blood vessels or kidney failure
  • Uric acid nephrolithiasis or kidney stones

Gout: Who are affected?

Typically, gout patients are about 95% men, 5% women.

  • Gout is nine times more common in men than in women
  • It predominantly attacks males after puberty, with a peak age of 75. In women, gout attacks usually occur after menopause.

Gout: What are the causes?

When the level of uric acid increases, due to the inability of kidneys to pass it off to bladder, it starts accumulating in the blood in different parts of body like joints, knees, etc. This excess amount of uric acid forms tiny thin crystals in different parts of body especially in the joints, ankles, etc.

  • Obesity, excessive weight gain (especially in youth),
  • Moderate to heavy alcohol intake
  • High blood pressure
  • Unhealthy eating habit, especially junk food
  • High protein-rich food
  • Fructose in corn syrup found in soft drinks
  • Abnormal kidney function.
  • Nose or throat disease
  • Heredity or genetic causes
  • People who does not wear comfortable shoes and in improper way suffer from gouts. In patients at risk of developing gout, certain conditions can precipitate acute attacks of gout. These conditions include:
  • Dehydration
  • Injury to the joint
  • Fever
  • Recent surgery
  • Certain drugs, such as thiazide diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide [Dyazide]), low-dose aspirin, niacin, cyclosporine, tuberculosis medications (pyrazinamide and ethambutol), and others can cause elevated uric acid levels in the blood and lead to gout.
  • Certain diseases lead to excessive production of uric acid in the body. Examples of these diseases include leukemia, lymphomas, and hemoglobin disorders.

Gout: What are the symptoms?

  • Severe pain in joints, knees, toe, etc. followed by warmth, swelling, reddish discoloration, and marked tenderness.
  • Gout generally, attacks patient late night or early morning.
  • The small joint at the base of the big toe is the most common site of an acute gout attack of arthritis (podagra)
  • Tenderness can be intense so that even a blanket touching the skin over the affected joint can be unbearable.
  • Patients can develop fever with the acute gout attacks.
  • These painful attacks usually subside in hours to days, with or without medication. In rare instances, an attack can last for weeks.
  • Most patients with gout will experience repeated attacks of arthritis over the years.
  • Other symptoms include, loss of appetite and sleep, also suffer from kidney stone. In acute cases, kidney sometimes completely fails.

Gout: How to diagnose?

  • The most reliable test for gout is finding uric acid crystals in a sample of the joint fluid obtained by joint aspiration (arthrocentesis).

X-rays can sometimes be helpful and may show tophi-crystal deposits and bone damage because of repeated bouts of inflammation. X-rays can also be helpful for monitoring the effects of chronic gout on the joints.

Gout: What are the treatments?

There are two key concepts essential to treating gout. First, it is critical to stop the acute inflammation of joints affected by gouty arthritis. Second, it is important to address the long-term management of the disease in order to prevent future gouty arthritis attacks and shrink gouty tophi crystal deposits in the tissues. The treatment of an acute attack of gouty arthritis involves measures and medications that reduce inflammation. Preventing future acute gout attacks is equally as important as treating the acute arthritis. Prevention of acute gout involves maintaining adequate fluid intake, weight reduction, dietary changes, reduction in alcohol consumption, and medications to lower the uric acid level in the blood (reduce hyperuricemia).

Gout: How can it be prevented?

  • Prevention of gout includes maintaining adequate fluid intake and reducing alcohol consumption. Alcohol has two major effects that worsen gout by impeding (slowing down) the excretion of uric acid from the kidneys as well as by causing dehydration, both of which contribute to the precipitation of uric acid crystals in the joints • Additional prevention methods include weight reduction and dietary changes.
  • Weight reduction can be helpful in lowering the risk of recurrent attacks of gout. This is best accomplished by reducing dietary fat and calorie intake, combined with a regular aerobic exercise program.
  • Medical treatment includes pain relievers such as Tylenol, anti-inflammatory medicines, and other medicines specific for gout medications.

Gout: How can diet help?

Dietary changes can help reduce uric acid levels in the blood. Meat or seafood consumption increases the risk of gout attacks; while dairy food consumption seemed to reduce the risk. Balance diet is very important to keep a healthy body

. • Patient suffering from gout should survive on orange juice for a week. During this period, orange juice diluted in water 2-3 times a day is suggested.

  • Once this period is over, patient should slowly start having other fruits like apple, banana, etc.
  • Once patient start showing improvement, he/she should be given proper balanced diet rich in green vegetables, fruits, whole wheat grain, etc.
  • Junk foods, protein-rich food like mutton, egg, etc. should be avoided.
  • Purine-rich foods should be avoided. Examples of foods rich in purines include shellfish and organ meats such as liver, brains, kidneys, and sweetbreads.
Categories Advice, Kidney Disease, Kundan Kidney Care Centre, Risk Factors

Blood Pressure Symptoms

High blood pressure is one of the most common health problems in the developed world. It’s also one of the most mysterious. In fact, it is often called the silent killer for its ability to strike people dead (in the most extreme cases) without showing any previous symptoms at all. But more often than not, people suffering from high blood pressure exhibit subtle symptoms of it but they often disregard them as something not serious. For this reason they may fail to see a doctor who would have easily diagnosed the condition with the most basic checkup.

It is therefore a good idea to pay attention to any signs of high blood pressure and to take them seriously. But how does one determine that they indeed are suffering from elevated blood pressure? What are the symptoms to look out for?

1. Headaches

Headaches can be an indication of high blood pressure but because they can also be due to many other things such as stress or anxiety many people don’t take them seriously, even if headaches sometimes become extremely painful.

Most of the early warning signs of high blood pressure, such as headaches, can be easily related to the condition: think of the old headache commercials on TV showing a head between a vice… that’s high blood pressure!

2. Fatigue, dizziness or confusion

How could hypertension cause these symptoms? Again, think of the physiology. If you rise quickly and your blood vessels are narrowed (a common feature of high blood pressure) you may not get sufficient blood to your brain, hence the dizziness. Confusion has related causes.

3. Blurred vision

A related symptom, which may often give you an earlier tip-off than blurred vision is sensitivity or tenderness of the eyes to touch. This happens because high blood pressure also increases the pressure within the eyes. This can make them sensitive to touch and, at a later stage, slight distortion of the eyeball due to pressure can actually affect your vision.

4. Noise or buzzing in the ears

This is caused by internal pressure in the ears in a similar way as that which causes vision disturbances.

5. Chest pain and/or nosebleeds

These final symptoms are obvious and alarming. You should consider them advanced warning signs that your blood pressure may be seriously elevated.

All of these symptoms can have many different causes, not just hypertension, and many of them are harmless, but it’s always better to be safe than sorry. This is especially true if you begin to notice more than just one or two. The more symptoms you have the stronger the picture that starts to emerge.

Even if you have just one vague symptom or an inner suspicion that you may have high blood pressure it makes good sense to at least get your blood pressure checked. And remember that it’s true that most instances of high blood pressure show no symptoms at all. This is another reason for regular checkups. If left untreated hypertension can lead to other more serious health problems and even sudden death in extreme cases.

Categories Advice, Fitness, Kidney Diet

Seasonal Eating

Eating what is in season is more affordable and supports healthy digestion. This will result in better sleep, mental clarity, calmness, and robust immune system.

Ayurveda acknowledges that nature’s harvest provides and antidote to the dominant qualities of each season.

Understanding the qualities of each season can help you reduce any adverse health effects. Ayurveda divide seasons into three categories instead of four. Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

Vata Season (Air and Space): This season is associated with late fall and early winter. The weather turns cold, windy and earth becomes dry. This will effect respiration, circulation, muscular action, chewing, blinking etc. you also need to watch out for dry skin, irregular digestion and unpredictable energy depletion.

Suggested Diet:

  • Emphasize on Sweet, Sour and Salty
  • Eat fresh, warm and well-cooked meals
  • Drink many warming liquids to prevent dehydration. This can include hot herbal teas
  • Eat Avocados, bananas, root vegetables, milk, ghee, fresh yogurt, eggs, nuts, seeds and lean meats
  • Favor additions like squeeze of lemon or lime juice, a splash of vinegar, a cheese slice or sour cream
  • Green grapes, oranges, pineapple and grapefruit are also helpful
  • Salt stimulates the appetite and digestion. It is a good idea to use sea salt or natural mineral salt over the common table salt.

Minimize:

  • Minimize Pungent, Bitter and Astringent
  • Chilies, radishes, turnips, raw onions
  • Kale, bitter melon, burdock roots, eggplant and chocolate
  • Keep your internal fire kindled. Eat warm, moist foods like, stews, soups and avoid salads and cold snacks.

Kapha Season (Water and Earth): This season extends from winter days to early spring.

Suggested Diet:

  • Here we switch to Pungent, Bitter and Astringent
  • Use spices like turmeric, garlic, cinnamon, cumin, cardamom, ginger
  • Apples, Cherries, lemons, peaches, pears, cranberries
  • Artichoke, asparagus, beets, bitter melon, cabbage, carrots, celery, eggplant, kale, lettuce etc.

Minimize:

  • Minimize sweet, sour and salty
  • Avoid bananas, cantaloupe, coconut, grapes, grapefruit, kiwi, oranges, papaya, watermelon etc.
  • Avoid zucchini, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, avocado, cucumber

Pitta Season (Fire and Water):  This season extends from spring to autumn. This dosa is pacified with astringent, bitter and sweet tastes while salty, sour and pungent tastes aggravate it. When you understand such tastes, you can make better food choices.

Suggested Diet:

  • Try to have a combination of carbohydrate-rich, grounding, cooling and fresh foods.
  • Prefer having cool foods over hot or warm foods.
  • Light and nourishing foods should be preferred over heavy or dense foods.
  • Have dry food items over liquid.
  • Fresh juices and other mild drinks are more preferable over caffeine based or alcohol based drinks.
  • Focus on sweet foods such as fresh yogurt, ghee, root vegetables, squashes etc.
  • Bitter tasting foods such as dark chocolate, Jerusalem artichokes, bitter melon and spices such as turmeric, saffron, neem leaves and cumin should be consumed.
  • Astringent foods are preferable, given that these can curb the tendency of the pitta to absorb excess fluid and sweat, prevent diarrhea, avoid bleeding disorders, tone tissues and curb pitta from spreading.

Minimize:

  • Avoid having too much sugary sweet foods or refined sugar. Try to eat foods that are naturally sweet.
  • Minimize pungent foods such as raw onions, turnips, radishes, chilies and particularly spices of a heating nature, as excessive pungent taste can lead to inflammation, dizziness, bleeding etc.
  • Avoid sour foods such as grapefruit, pineapple, green grapes, sour cream, hard cheeses etc that can disturb the blood, cause burning sensations in heart, lead to pus in wounds etc.
  • Avoid having too salty foods as these can disturb the balance of blood, aggravate the skin, raise heat and more.

In Ayurveda, a year is divided into 3 seasons depending on the doshas or the elemental forces that are predominant. Kapha, Pitta, and Vata are the 3 doshas that display the 5 elements in varied amounts:

  • Earth
  • Water
  • Fire
  • Air
  • Space

Once the doshas are balanced, a condition that is known as “Sattva”, one can enjoy optimal health. According to Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical treatise, an imbalance of any element or in any particular area, can be corrected by application of the opposite. It always recommends a counterbalancing approach in life in order to prevent any imbalance – such as balancing warmth with cold and vice versa. Ayurveda has a sloka (writing) that mentions “A Food is a Medicine When Consumed Properly”. When foods that are suited uniquely to individual psychology are consumed, and a lifestyle based on sattva is supported, digestion is improved and there is full benefit for health.

Categories Health, Kidney Disease, Kundan Kidney Care Centre, Risk Factors

Kidney Disease and Edema

Kidney patients often have to deal with water retention, causing swelling or puffiness of the tissue especially in legs, arms or under the eyes.

A quick test to see if you have water retention is to press the affected area for a few seconds and see if the skin retains a dimple. Other symptoms may include:

  • Shortness of breath (especially when lying down)
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain

These conditions may require immediate attention. In many cases, your doctor may prescribe you a diuretic, also known as water pills.

As our body is made-up of almost 80 percentage of water, kidneys play an important role in the health of our body.

The kidneys and the adrenal glands are responsible for cleansing the blood, produce needed hormones, and regulate blood pressure and mineral balance.

If left untreated, edema can cause:

  • Stiffness
  • Increased risk of skin ulcers
  • Painful swelling
  • Risk of infection
  • Decreased blood circulation
  • High blood pressure

If you are healthy, it may be possible to try home remedies to address edema however, if you are a kidney patient, it is not a good idea to try things that may cause more damage to the kidneys then offering any good. It is essential to consultant a professional to address this issue.

At Kundan Kidney Care Centre we can help you understand the cause and remedy for edema.

We offer safe and natural treatment for kidney disease. Please contact us via phone or email to ask questions about your kidney health.

Categories Health, Kidney Diet, Kundan Kidney Care Centre, Risk Factors

How to Prevent Kidney Stones

If you have ever had a kidney stone you know the experience can be extremely unpleasant.  Did you know that over the course of lifetime, one in ten people will have a kidney stone?

If your doctor suspects you have a kidney stone, you may be asked to have diagnostic tests done.

  1. Blood Testing: Too much calcium or uric acid in your blood could be of concern. Blood test may also help monitor the health of your kidneys.
  2. Urine Testing: A 24 Hour urine collection test may reveal that you are exreting too many stone forming minerals.
  3. Ultra-sound Scanning: Imaging tests may show kidney stones in your urinary tract.
  4. Passed Stones Analysis: Your passed stone may reveal the makeup of your kidney stones.

Prevention of kidney stones may include a combination of lifestyle changes and medication.

Drink Fluid: People with the history of kidney stones are recommended to drink about 2.5 liters of water per day. If you live in a hot dry climate and sweat a lot then you may need to drink even more water so that you produce enough urine. A light and clear urine indicate that you are drinking enough water.

Oxalate-Rich Foods: Your doctor may ask you to prevent oxalate rich foods. Cutting oxalate rich food may sound logical but this  may not be smart for an overall health perspective. Eat and drink calcium and oxalate rich foods together during a meal. Doing so, they are more likely to bind in the stomach and intestines before they kidneys begin processing.

Diet Selection: Reduce the amount of salt and choose non-animal protein sources. Consider using a salt substitute such as herbs or spices.

Manage underlying Medical Problems: Some medical conditions like obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes can raise your risk for kidney stones.

Treatment may be required if the diet and drinking water does not work. Consult us for further information. There are herbal and safer ways to address this problem.

Categories Health, Kidney Diet, Kidney Disease

Pre-Dialysis Diet

Patients with kidney disease need to be careful about their food choices to avoid excess wastes and fluid from building up. With the progression of the disease, the dietary needs may vary. The intent of doing this is to

• reduce the workload of kidneys
• preserve the kidney function that is left

It will be important for you to understand how to eat well and how to get the right amount of protein, minerals to maintain a healthy weight and manage your fluid balance.

The goal is to delay the onset for the need of dialysis, minimizing failing kidney symptoms such as uremia and maintaining an optimal health.

General Diet Guidelines:

1. Protein: Protein needs for a kidney patient in not requiring dialysis would be less than those having dialysis. In the early stages of CKD, the kidneys are still able to work however, need to work much harder to remove all the waste. Consuming food rich in protein may lead to overworked kidneys causing more damage to the kidneys.
Eating less Protein helps to preserve kidney function and prevent additional damage to the kidneys.

To calculate the recommended intake of protein, you can multiple your weight with 0.8gms/kilogram.

e.g. A person weighing 52 kg will require 52 x 0.8 = 42gms of protein/day

2. Potassium: It is important to check your blood report to see if your potassium is beyond the range. An optimal potassium range is 3.5 – 5.0 mg/dl
if the reading shows high potassium, avoid the following food items:

• wholegrain cereals, bread and biscuits
• fruits and vegetables from the high potassium group e.g. banana
• canned fruits and vegetable, juices, milk, wine
• nuts, seeds

3. Sodium: The main source of sodium is salt. This should be avoided regardless of the kidney disease. Salt is found in almost all the packaged and processed foods.

Salt makes to feel thirsty which will result in drinking more fluid. Sodium restriction in kidney disease helps to maintain normal fluid balance.

4. Phosphorus: With the lack of kidney function, blood phosphate level may also rise. When it begins to build up in the blood, calcium is drawn from the bone. This may lead to joint pain, eye irritation, itchiness and hardening blood vessels.

Here is a list of food rich in phosphorus:

• dairy products
• dark sodas
• nuts and peanut butter
• beer
• legumes
• organ meats